As the war dragged on into 1916 and then 1917 it seemed to be a war with no end. The Western Front was a stalemate with battles that yielded little progress but costs thousands of lives. In response to a British blockade the Germans utilized U-boats or submarines to attack British naval vessels but then the Germans began to target British merchant ships delivering goods to Great Britain. When the passenger ship Lusitania was sunk by a U-boat killing over 1200 people including 120 Americans. Fearing the entry of the US into war Germany soon ceased attacking passenger ships but by 1917 the Germans returned to unrestricted submarine warfare because they saw it as vital to defeating the British navy.
The attacks on shipping began to draw the US closer to war and then the discovery of the Zimmerman note which was a secret message from the German government to Mexico promising the southwestern US if they came into the war on the side of Germany. So with the pressure from different directions, the US declared war in April 1917.
The Zimmerman Note
Today we will examine the end of the war and the Treaty of Versailles which formally ended the war. We will examine the conditions of the peace treaty and how it also set up the conditions that led to World War II.
End of WWI and the Peace Treaty Powerpoint
End of WWI and the Peace Treaty Guided Notes
Battle of The Somme Primary Source Worksheet
Treaty of Versailles Source Reading
At the beginning of World War I Russia was a nation in turmoil. The reforms promised after the Revolution of 1905 never materialized and poverty persisted as the economy worsened. As the war progressed Russia’s prospects in the war were dim as Russia showed herself ill-equipped to fight a war against the Germans. As 1917 began Russia was on the edge of another revolution. By the end of 1917 Bolsheviks under Vladimir Lenin had seized power began to establish a radical Communist government as well as executing the entire Russian royal family. This led to a negotiated peace with the Central Powers and Russia’s withdrawal from World War One.
Below you find links to the Russian Revolution, Guided notes and the worksheet for the day.
Russian Revolution Textbook Reading
Russian Revolution Powerpoint
Russian Revolution Guided Notes
Russian Revolution Guided Reading & Crossword
Many Sikh Indian troops fought for the British during WWI
Because most of the action and fighting during WWI took place within Europe many have the mistaken idea that only Europeans fought in WWI. But the reality is that WWI was a truly global war that included troops from around the world. Many African and Asian troops took part in the fighting as colonial troops with the hope that their courage and valor world win them respect and eventually self-rule and independence.
369th Infantry Unit
When the United States entered the war in 1917 one of the most decorated and prestigious units was the 369th Infantry Unit better known as the Harlem Hellfighters. The Harlem Hellfighters were an all African-American unit who fought with amazing tenacity and courage alongside French troops in Europe. Because of racial discrimination in the US during training, the 369th was sent to France ahead of other troops and were allowed to fight alongside French troops because American generals did not want them fighting with white US troops. The
The French government awarded the entire regiment the Croix de Guerre. The video below by the National Guard highlights the courage of the Harlem Hellfighters.
The Harlem Hellfighters
African Soldiers in World War I
India’s WW1 Hero You’ve Never Heard of
Below are links to the Powerpoint and assignments for the day.
Black and Asian Troops during World War One Powerpoint
Black and Asian Troops during World War One Guided Notes
Harlem Hellfighters Reading
Harlem Hellfighters Organizer Worksheet
We will also watch a trailer from the movie Joyeux Noel a movie which recounts the true and extraordinary Christmas truce of Christmas 1914 when German and Allied troops exchanged Christmas presents and played each other in soccer.
The graphic novel below is based on The Harlem Hellfighters; 200 Bonus points will awarded to students who read the novel and write a 1-page typed review.
For more information on Black history in Great Britain see the website Black Presence in Britain- Black British History
Today we will continue to examine World War One or The Great War as it came to be known. World War One began with great waves of patriotic enthusiasm but the enthusiasm soon died down as the war reached a stalemate on the Western Front and thousands died trying to claim a few feet.
WWI also became a new type of war as new technologies led to new weapons and even more horrific ways to bring death to the battlefield. WWI saw the introduction to machine guns, poison gas, new artillery and high powered shells. Airplanes and tanks were seen for the first time on the battlefield. We will also see that the war spread to battlefields outside of Europe to the Ottoman Empire, Middle East, Africa and even Asia. When you come to class you will take about 5 minutes to take an online review quiz. Afterward, we will examine the war in more detail as we look at the powerpoint found below.
World War One-A New Kind of War Powerpoint
World War One- A New Kind of War Guided Notes
Europe Plunges into War Textbook reading
After we take notes we will break into groups and examine what makes World War I different than the wars that came before it. You will research with your group one of the following areas: Tanks, Poison Gas, Weapons, Aircraft, U-boats & submarines or Trench Warfare. If you are absent then you can complete the worksheet below.
World War Definitions & Questions (Substitute in case of absence)
Next, we will begin looking at World War One sometimes called the Great War.We will first examine the complicated causes and events leading up to World War One. These events are complicated but are based on four basic causes. These four causes or tensions were
But the spark that caused the explosion of World War One was the assassination of the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne Archduke Franz Ferdinand on June 28, 1914. As the Archduke and his wife were traveling through the streets of Sarajevo they were both killed by Gavrilo Princip a member of a Serbian nationalist group. Soon after recriminations and ultimatums were issued that led to multiple declarations of war that plunged all of Europe into a war that spread worldwide.
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife
Below are the links for the day:
Beginnings & Causes of World War 1 Powerpoint
Beginnings & Causes of World War 1 Guided Notes
Causes of World War One Organizer
Today you will read about the atrocities in the Congo under King Leopold and the actions of a little known African American hero who served as a missionary in the Congo. William Shepherd was one of the missionaries who risked his life by telling the wider world about the human rights abuses and deaths in the Congo. Shepherd also became renowned as an explorer. While black History month has just passed William Shepherd is an African American hero worth remembering. Read about Shepherd and then answer the questions in complete sentences and paragraphs. The links for the classwork is found below. If you finish early then you can catch up on incomplete work.
William Shepherd Missionary & Explorer Reading
William Shepherd Missionary & Explorer Worksheet
Imperialism in Africa Definitions and Cartoon (Use as makeup work)
Belgians working in the Congo cut off the hands of villagers who refused to harvest rubber or to show that they did not waste bullets. Reports by William Sheppard helped make the world aware of atrocities being committed against the native tribes.
During the mid-1800s Africa was largely unknown and unexplored by Europeans but between 1880 and 1914 European nations competed among themselves to divide Africa up as colonial possessions. This is often called the Scramble for Africa as Europeans divided the continent up with no attention given to language or cultural differences. The impact of this division of Africa still impacts Africa today as the continent struggles with the legacy of imperialism.
You will examine the PowerPoint fond below. Then you will read about the atrocities in the Congo and the actions of a little known African American hero who served as a missionary in the Congo. Finally, you will examine a political cartoon and complete definitions relevant to imperialism in Africa.
Scramble for Africa Powerpoint
Scramble for Africa Guided Notes
Africa Colonial Map & Current Africa Map (You can use the maps below)
Imperialism in Africa Definitions and Cartoon (Use as makeup work)
Scramble for Africa Textbook reading
Africa After the Scramble, 1914
Since this is the last day of class before Mardi Gras break we will watch the film White King, Red Rubber, Black Death. This film tells the story of the atrocities and genocide carried out by Belgium under King Leopold II.
When King Leopold assumed the throne of Belgium he believed that he would become a great King and Belgium a great nation only if the country had colonies. Leopold manipulated the Berlin Conference in 1884 so the Congo became his personal colony. Great atrocities occurred to gain Leopold a great fortune from the rubber in the Congo basin. Leopold deserves a place among those like Hitler and Stalin because of the suffering Congo endured.
Complete the constructed response questions while watching the film. Completed worksheets will be used as bonus points. It will either be used to replace missing work or as bonus points. (Also look on the bottom for another way for extra points)
White King, Red Rubber, Black Death Worksheet
Use the You Tube videos and watch the film. The entire film is not posted but is posted if order.
Another way to gain Extra Points 300 Points to anyone who reads:
- King Leopold’s Ghost by Adam Hochschild
- Read the book and write a 3 page double spaced typed report on the book. You can find a copy at the EBR Public Library. It is also available as an e-book at the EBR library.
Illustration: British general Robert Clive makes a secret deal to gain territory in India for Britain
Wednesday/Thursday examine imperialism by looking at the British takeover of India. The British began their conquest of India not with the landing of an army but with a desire to establish trade. The British East India Company was a joint stock company formed to establish trade between Britain and India & East Asia. Soon after establishing trading posts in East India the Company soon became entangled in Indian politics.
As Britain gained an influence the Mughal empire slowly declined in power. As Britain controlled territory the British began to manipulating local rulers using the suggestion that their power depended upon British support. The East India Company had their own army largely composed of Indian soldiers called sepoys. British insensitivity led to the Sepoy Mutiny(or the War for Indian Independence as it’s called today in India). After a serious of massacres and atrocities on both sides, the British emerged victorious(with help from other Indians) and established India as a crown colony with Queen Victoria proclaimed the Empress of India. While the British brought some improvements they were mostly concerned with enriching themselves. By the end of the 19th century with the establishment of the Indian National Congress in 1885 and the Muslim League in 1906 Indian nationalism began to unite Indians in their desire for Indian self-rule.
Britain takes over India powerpoint
Britain Takes over India Guided Notes
British Imperialism in India Textbook Reading
India State Map
India Language Map
Europeans & Japan dividing China into spheres of influence
Monday and Tuesday we look at both the impact of imperialism on both China and Japan. China struggled to stay isolated from the European nations but found themselves dominated by Europe.
Opium War Movie Poster
Japan also remained isolated for centuries but that isolation ended when US president Millard Fillmore sent Commodore Matthew Perry on a trade mission to Japan. Perry convinced the Japanese to sign the Treaty of Kanagawa which opened up Japanese ports to trade. The Japanese found this deeply humiliating and led to the Japanese drive towards modernization. Japan modernized so quickly that they became an industrial & imperial power. See the links below for Powerpoints and Worksheets.
Commodore Perry in Japan: A Japanese perspective
Imperialism in China/Japan emerges as a World Power Powerpoint
Imperialism in China/Japan emerges as a World Power Guided Notes
China/Japan Constructed Response Questions
China Resists Outside Influence Textbook Reading
Japan Modernizes Textbook Reading
Imperialism in Southeast Asia Textbook reading
Japan during the Meiji Restoration